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Impact of Circulation

This spearhead investigates the crucial influence exerted by people, goods, and ideas when they move or are moved from one society to another by means of migration, trade, or knowledge exchange.

This exchange went from core to periphery, but also vice versa. Moreover, it was complex and/or characterised by frequent repetition. The impact of this circulation has been great indeed, because, more than anything else, the exchange across borders has caused scholarly and scientific knowledge to expand and social innovations to take place.