Professor Lex Heerma van Voss studied History at Utrecht University and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris. He gained his Ph.D. cum laude at Utrecht University with a thesis on the eight hour working day in the Netherlands. He was a senior research fellow at the International Institute of Social History (IISH) from 1994 until 2011. In 2010-11 he also was scientific director of Instituut Gak. Since 2000 he holds a professorship at Utrecht University, originally in the history of Labour Relations, from 2014 in the History of Social Security. In 2011-12 he headed Huygens ING’s department of Political and Institutional History.